Tiago Miranda

Bilingual, philosopher, keen naturalist and arborist / Climber and avid reader during weekdays, writer and explorer on weekends

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Trees and The Climbing Gear Evolution – A Beneficial Relationship?

Some of Us Are Still Out to Discover

Written by Tiago Miranda

It seems like that tree climbing never stops to impress us. Are we going towards the right direction though?

The evolution of tree climbing gear had a massive incline with no sign of slowing down in the last decade or so. From climbing belts, 3-strand lanyards and hitches to Rope Runners, Akimbo and Chicane. An evolution that not everyone that started with nothing can comprehend its benefits.

This is a type of contrast that even back in my day of muscle strength meant hard work. Nowadays, no one excuses to say “work smart, not hard”.

This is controversial if you believe that the old school still rules the arboriculture industry though. In my opinion, it has its place.

Please be mindful that the old school is not a past consideration. It is still valid for various applications. It is up to you how to use the right gear and right technique for the right predicament though.

The art of tree work is not only related to shiny gear and new fancy techniques. It is more about how we, tree workers, are involved with trees by the way we cut, feel and smell wood afterwards. The adrenaline rush and team play are concepts well admired by a lot of tree workers around the world.

Although holding big chainsaws and using big machinery are appealing to us, passion ought to come first, showing that majority out there, as dedicated tree workers they are, had fallen in love with the industry at first sight.

The experience of dragging branches, frenetically feeding the chipper and dealing with ropes are nostalgic moments that brought me into the unknown and still occur today. Also, the feeling of what’s more once you dedicate a career as a climber seems to be always present.

The love of climbing has to be wise if you would like to maintain it for several years to come. I think we are physically different shaped by our fitness level and food intake. Believe or not, this is an important point that for some reason we do not like to touch upon.

I understand if you do not like to eat well, do regular exercises and keep healthy, but one way or another it can be debatable on your performance at the end of the day.

That said, the introduction of a pulley and hitch other than Blakes or English prusik changed people’s life.

Out of the sudden, that elbow pain seems to be gone, your back does not hurt anymore and your wrist is fine again. From there onwards, climbing innovations did not take long to find the front seat of attention.

Another pivot moment in climbing, and I remember it quite clearly, was when throwline came into the game to access canopies rather than alternating tie-in points.

Access lines became to be incorporated into the scene as well and footlock was the moment that fitness and technique work together. Not everyone could do it. But for those who could, their climbing level increased by a huge amount.

I used to complain about footlock, nevertheless adopted as my best friend when I found out that I was getting more efficient after a bit of training.

As climbers started to progress towards ascending the canopy and having an extra climbing line to work around it, Single Rope Technique (SRT) did not take long to settle down amongst us.

I am aware that the history of tree climbing changes from place to place. At least where I come from, this stationary technique was the boom of my generation as a climber. Adopted from industrial abseiling and having its name changed to SRS (Stationary Rope System), it migrated all around the globe, attracting a young crowd and simultaneously helping those from the old school to extend their life span as climbers.

What a great thing you might think. And it is, but with exceptions.

Apart from this new technique appearing with initial research and guidelines, it was first adopted by the most experienced ones. And later passed it onto novice climbers that sometimes did not know how to do it properly.

One way or another, SRS brought a realistic scenario that the basic climbing foundation was slowly disappearing, whereas videos of tree climbing on SRS were easily posted, attracting many untrained people to try it out. This could have possibly created a culture influenced by the digital world far from what it was before, limiting guidelines to be well interpreted.

That is when accidents can happen, and it did a lot and continues to do so. Just by my experience, I have met at least a couple of dudes that cut their life line whilst base anchoring.

But what was the reason? Most possibly a lack of knowledge about the 3-point of contact, using the lanyard incorrectly and more likely cutting above their heads.

Due to the climbing gear evolution, anyone now has access to the most innovated piece, sometimes without even knowing how to tie a basic knot. This is a phenomenon that, unfortunately, will stay with us for more years to come. Hard to know who to blame though.

Does it mean is bad for the industry? Yes and no, but it does create a gap into training.

A gap that willing or not you could minimise people’s knowledge about the art of ropes and relying only on devices. This might then be a worry.

Please do not get me wrong, I love the good bling-bling, new techniques and mechanical devices. But I am lucky enough to understand its place and not let the old school knowledge to dissipate into the fog.

The basic tree climbing methods made me struggle on big trees and allowed me to sympathise with change as a good thing. And I know many people that are still climbing the same way they always did for fifteen years or so. It is fine as long as they do not care about change nor their bodies. As I said earlier, it has its place and the one must be willing for something different.

The question is: are we able to catch up with the evolution of climbing technology? Are we able to provide the appropriate training every time a new gear comes out within this golden climbing age?

I think we are and we should because it will never recede. It is to our benefit that prolonging climber’s life expectancy as the main priority. Not just that, but also the diversified options available might improve the one’s ability to become a complete tree climber expert, especially when the gear is used wisely.

However, accidents are already increasing over the years, and we still do not know if it is related to this frenetic world of climbing toys or something else.

One thing is certain: it will not stop anytime soon unless we give the right training for young generations. At least then they can avoid major mistakes and possibly bad habits in the long run.

4 minute read
Published on November 19, 2020
Money grows on trees
Arborists and Money: A Beneficial Relationship?

Sitting on my bean bag late afternoon, I was pondering about our tree industry and what road it has taken in the last few years. I consider myself new to it, disregarding my contribution as a climber to the climbing community for the last 10 years and personal progression towards a better professional future. When I say contribution, it is pretty much my presence and learning process into an environment of social inclusion and collective improvement.

This, nonetheless, has proven to be beneficial for me and most likely to a lot of you out there.

Meanwhile, my head started to overflow with questions like a glass of water under a monsoon storm. I could see myself unable to answer most of them due to the politics behind. I try to avoid touching into politics and societal ideologies, especially during this intense capitalistic model we live today. Though, it is more likely than never what causes the majority of our doubts in how to transform an industry based only on profit into something more… let’s say, beneficial to us as individuals and the environment, considering the consequences we might face ahead.

Checking plenty of Youtube videos and posts on Facebook about arboriculture bad practices and how business owners tend to focus only on profit regardless what this will generate later down the track, I concluded that it is almost inevitable to find a solution. Please, bear with me on this one as I will try to not convince you otherwise, but make a point about why money should be less important than to preserve our industry reputation and embrace us, the arborists, as benign environmentalists and front line fighters of climate change.

After reading Mark Roberts article “Be Properly Amazing”, it made me think if indeed we, as qualified professionals, valued more money than the tree itself. Concerning the importance of city growth and the contribution that urban forestry has in total with this frenetic property development market, we tend to be delved into a hurricane of choices by pure pressure that certain tree services, which not always are focus on tree health, can be done without quarrel.

That said, the capital, dinero, plata or however you call money most possibly could get in the way of good arboricultural practices. One of the reasons I find this more likely to happen is the fact that business owners invested heaps of money, sometimes massive loans out of their financial capacity, to eventually start a company that fast profit is the essential force to bring prosperity for this business to go forward without laying down on bumps.

Although, a clash between what is good or bad for the tree may be forgotten and challenge those in this deep hole to reconsider if they are qualified to proceed as an honest business operator or not. This is the moment my brain started to shake out of the skull and a specific question came up as a bright lamp above my head: how arborists should conduct business then?

Well, this is not a question for me as I am not a businessman, but I can comfortably run myself without much pressure. In saying so, I did work for large business operators in the past and I could see how much therein to consider if this business may thrive in the future or not.

The mountain of bills they have to constantly be on top of it; the large fleet operation they have to constantly maintain; the constant health and safety investment they have to keep upgrading are simple facts that any of us, whoever is reading this article, holding this position would most probably not sleep at night and pull their hairs out until become bold.

The truth is: to run a business properly, we have to consider a large number of variables, including the environment, business philosophy, employees, qualification, history and so forth to eventually be able to understand why bad practices seem unstoppable. Okay, breath in and breath out. Another question I solely believe maybe what future holds for us: can we make a profit while contributing to the environment? Yes, but let’s think properly.

As we all know those that follow Zane Wedding on Facebook, it is indeed really hard to keep up with the man’s feed page. If, for instance, you watched his interview on Breakfast On1 available on Facebook by a bunch of us that recently shared, you might consider him crazy, slovenly and sloppy. However, he is touching a point that inevitably is one case of a relentless industry accepting without dispute the drop-down of a tree protection law that initially was there to protect the local environment, local communities, local wildlife and consecutively the professionals that love trees.

Okay, you might be someone that disapproves Zane’s attitude and you still believe you care for trees. It is unfortunately hard to deem and easy to accept that you belong to those that were taking advantage of an inexistent control system on removing trees without a solid reason, which I imagine was done by pure greed and client innocence, and I don’t think you have any better explanation to justify your actions. You may remain silent then.

Seeing Zane’s recent activism towards a cause that is probably constructing a better whole picture, arborists in the field cannot forget the reason why we supposed to care for trees in the first place. Work ethics is one thing that we were both taught at some point during our professional career, but what about tree ethics? Does that include in our working manual? I ought to revisit almost daily this concept that, nonetheless, towards other workers, we may respect but not the tree itself, granting some sort of escape route that nobody would complain about it. It is funny when a person run up to you while pruning or removing trees and ultimately shout at you defending some sort of environmental cause. She/he has a point at the end of the day though and I bet we all had stories like that before.

Of course, there are other ways in how she/he should’ve approached you and how climate change anxiety is an actual syndrome. Either way, it is proven that we aren’t recognised as tree doctors nor tree surgeons nor even tree people. By their eyes, we are just ‘tree loppers’ butchering that tree without a tin of knowledge. How can we explain ourselves out of this if our image is compromised? I guess we shall leave this for another article then.

Where Are We Now?

After all these facts, you must be confused and seems to be no way out. I told you so at the beginning of the article. But a discussion ought to be important. Eventually, what the future holds as arborists lead us to think of other alternatives and embed profit as the main driving force, as long as we can start selling more tree health instead. For that to happen, we also have to understand a bit better how the urban forestry may unfold towards better planting, species selection, adequate parks and reserves, and above all, preserve local native species.

Only by this, we might be able to mitigate the risks of an industry in collapse and continuous dispute within basic principles about our profession. Regulation shown to be efficient in a time that selected priorities toward the community was in place, emancipating tree laws that could avoid buffoons to become ‘qualified arborists’ out of thin air, and also for certain situations that requiring a tree consent for property owners also revealed efficacy to combat bad tree work practices.

The competitive environment due to the ‘free trade’ market that human society holds demonstrates to increase the amount of people going solo. Another reason why tree services are constantly fighting a battle against what is right or wrong is the fact that whoever is operating a business wants to win a quote. Consecutively, undercutting prices is a common practice sometimes unnoticed by many. This is again a problem, but it can be solved if, once for all, education comes handy.

I know this is a catch22 but proper tree education must reach the majority of arborists that understand there are more important things to be considered and they could show their clients the appropriate move for long term results. The era of convincing the one what might be the better approach towards a tree is here and both sides could easily get into an agreement to benefit all of us.

A bit of a novel this text and I apologise. Good on you if you got this far. Even though I couldn’t touch, or those expecting so, in how to solve these problems, but please take this as food for thought. I hope most of you speak your minds more often and make us more united to determine who we, as arborists, shall give a better future for the next generation or not.

5 minute read
Published on November 25, 2020
A Digestive Walk

Thoughts of Time

A dark day thus the sun was out, hiding behind the clouds. The wind was blowing until there were no clouds again. And the sun felt free, for only ten minutes each hour. We are facing south and the wind freezes our cheeks. So cold that your hands go numb whilst outside.

I always suffer at work, striving to open carabiners, pull ropes and jump branch to branch. At the top of the tree is different though. Not only the view changes but also the temperature. Depending on the height, you can feel colder than being on the ground sometimes by more than two degrees Celsius.

My workwear may change depending on the climb. I still feel like in winter, and the wool thermal offers great help.

After having a lovely lunch, I decided to walk back home. Only twenty minutes by foot. A good way to digest ideas and frustrations. Walking towards a point B makes you forget about the point A. You are focus to arrive somewhere.

Along the way, your head travels north and south, east and west. The meaning of things is like leaves falling of trees, gliding softly until reaching the ground. This is the litter of nature, whereas the cycle of life and death never stops.

My walk from the coffee shop to home was not any different. Only a few more steps to arrive at the destination that we call home. A place where death is not welcome and life thrives. A place where a smile worth more than money, and time is rich like food that you could not live without.

I do not think reading is a waste of time. As time goes fast, pulling less futile stuff out of the box the better. Sometimes could take a while to learn things or you never will. Only patience to understand that time passes by.

Time will not stop to extend its hand and cross the red light holding it together. Time is just there, functioning non-stop, counting numbers and events by itself. Today’s time is unpredictable, but only time to tell when to slow down.

And it is now.

1 minute read
Published on November 26, 2020
Within A Country that Changed So Much — What Now, Brazil?

How to begin a subject that makes me feel somewhat annoyed and frustrated. The complexity behind this country is almost befuddling and hard to believe that is a thing of the present. As a Brazilian, nonetheless ashamed, I cannot avoid leaving tears drop heavily from my eyes.

When I think that a country with all its natural resources, multiculturalism, heavy and rich human history and folklore, and one of the places with the most acclaimed musicians in the world, has to go through a period of retrogression due to the political institutions and the mind-shaping government that is there today.

A country of simplicity and vast regional knowledge that by the telling of stories you could easily put a giant to sleep. A place where the Amazon symbolises the lungs of the planet, with controversial opinions, and a sanctuary of the most diversified species of plants and animals in the world. Landscapes that not even a professional camera and Photoshop after touch could make more beautiful than in reality.

Even though it is a place that I chose not to spend my adulthood for obvious reasons, people still call me a visionary of some sort because I left the country at early age. One way or another, I disagree with this claim, but it showed to be of some reasonably truth overtime. That said, my view from far away may differ from those living amid the mayhem but it is based upon evidence anyway.

Exploring Brazil’s history and its presence regarding the world view, you cannot neglect several important figures belonging to the intellectual society, translating as a country of art, music, dance and food. I am not just talking about samba and capoeira for most travellers out there.

I am talking about a place that had its roots in people like Luís da Câmara Cascudo, with his multitalented persona that shaped what modernity and national identity mean for Brazilians and was recognised not just as an anthropologist, but also as a folklorist, journalist, historian, lawyer and lexicographer.

Besides, when mentioning about Câmara Cascudo, I should not forget Gilberto Freyre, as also an anthropologist and sociologist that together belonged to a generation of intellectuals responsible for interpreting Brazil as a society. If you are casting about the Brazilian social and cultural history, Freyre is an important point of departure.

As I am exercising a line of thought through this text, my aim is to create a benign dialogue among people. Like any important philosopher, Paulo Freire, the Brazilian educationalist, has left an important mark on progressive practices within the country’s educational system.

He revolutionised the importance of dialogue by theoretical innovations, weaving together not just a strand of thinking in educational practice but also liberation, something that in the context of actual politics is slowly fading away.

These individuals made a difference in transforming Brazil intellectually around the world. Also, such as musicians like João Gilberto, pioneered the musical genre of bossa nova in the late 1950s with his well-known song “The Girl of Ipanema” in collaboration with his wife Astrud Gilberto. The same could be said of Chico Buarque, with his wit and fearless creative soul whilst confronting a dictatorship that was slow to recede during the 1980’s.

Not forgetting Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, who were also revocable by the government during the dictatorship of the 60’s, but they decided to go into exile overseas to avoid repression at once.

Other than music, Ailton Krenak is one of the most notorious indigenous philosophers of the century, with astonishing books about his reflections of a country that exploited and replaced its native people, deforesting reserves and burning sacred lands without any sense of humanity.

Among all these interesting figures that shaped Brazil, the people of the country; those that worked day and night without a breath; those that lost their siblings during disease outbreaks; those that depend on daily bread and butter are also to be considered. This could be a mix of indigenous, African and Portuguese cultures that inevitably shaped the peoples of this country.

We also cannot forget the contribution that working-class people, mostly ignored by the elite, made concerning the building, from ground zero, of a country with all its beauty and eccentricities. Sub-culturalism is the foundation of Brazilian identity. I came from this mix and probably so too did the majority of you born in this place of colours and exquisite birds.

What is it all mean for today’s reality?

A reality indisputable that turned the whole beauty of a country into pure ignorance, manipulation, religious oppression and defamed education. After the collapse of the previous government, which most of you out there classify as ultra-leftist, we ought to accept, with unhappiness, the dominion of the other extreme through a clear coup.

A government that is run by a person of whom disgrace is the front page of his dictionary. And nonetheless, he claimed to do everything ‘right’. In saying so, Jair Bolsonaro might look inoffensive, but as soon as he opens his mouth the world turns upside down, and misogyny and homophobic expressions fall off his dried, crumbly lips like evil-sweet treats given to kids. The worst thing is that he believes he is a good person.

I will never forget the documentary called “Out There” by the BBC with Stephen Fry as its host and his travels around the world to confront leaders who preach homophobia, xenophobia and misogyny. Of course, as we all know, Brazil was on his list and eventually with a bit of a shove, Mr Fry got an invitation to speak to Bolsonaro and this is even before he was elected. He went to Parliament House amongst other politicians and the nonsense that surrounds it and spoke to Bolsonaro.

With his wit and calmness, Mr Fry expected at least a few words in English that presumably would show if the man could fill this important political role or not. Although as predicted, Bolsonaro raised his voice, as he does, and provocatively challenged Mr Fry with rude arguments, making jokes about his sexual life and so forth. What a hammer.

Mr Fry not knowing what to do, as he probably felt as if he was in a zoo interacting verbally with a monkey, simply gave a wry laugh and walked away. Afterwards, in front of the camera, he says, not quoting, that he just faced one of the most dangerous men of the century.

Coming from Mr Fry, I don’t disagree, and indeed, he is a dangerous man and by the fact Bolsonaro nominated his whole family into power going abruptly against whatever democracy states in federal law, if there’s one, it does not make me think the opposite anyway. You might not believe it but let us grasp this carefully.

If you happen to encounter someone that was proven to disseminate fake news and stimulate threats to and attacks against legislative and judiciary institutions and individual persons, and even worse with the participation of public servants working inside the presidential palace as the writer Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer exemplifies, how can you believe he is not a threat?

Well, if you preserve your identity, fight for equal rights and worry about the population’s well-being, you certainly do not have to think too hard about it. But if you are filthy rich and never travel in and out of your bubble, I have no option but to consider you a henchman.

How far does this go?

It goes so far, so far so that not even the opposition could handle this maniac anymore. According to the actual politics and media manipulation, Bolsonaro is having higher approvals with a greater chance of re-election than you might think. Many people out there are convinced that we are living amongst a new type of fascist regime, especially in countries like Brazil and the U.S.A. This is, otherwise, a bit hard to be defined as reality.

According to Gabriel Landi Fazzio, writer of VERSO, who explained in-depth Bolsonarism and if there’s such fascism in Brazil through his article “Is there fascism in Brazil? Bolsonarism as terror and ideology”. Gabriel purports that “fascism uses methods of civil war and terrorism to apply its reactionary domination even before it seizes power”, which by the way is almost what Jair Bolsonaro intends to do, at least in the future.

In my opinion, the only way to survive as a born Brazilian, but unassuming, citizen like myself between all these political frustrations whilst watching your family suffer through a repressive government in the merge of fascism and possible re-election of a malefic figure, is to follow such news through comedy. That’s right.

Victor Camejo is one of those that through simple witticism and humour, including Gregorio Duvivier, lights a torch inside of us, raising questions like ‘why things went pear shape in the first place’. One of the reasons, and again stated by a convincing writer through his article “Bolsonarism and ‘Frontier Capitalism’”, Daniel Cunha makes a clear note that the longstanding systemic crisis of capitalism, which leads to new and more intense clashes between social classes and national states, is the one to blame.

In a country like Brazil, which probably is no different than the U.S.A., “the bourgeoisie, associated with imperialism, mobilizes all its forces to attack labour and social security rights, reduce wages, cut public investments and social programs, increase exploitation, privatize and denationalise state-owned enterprises and plunder natural resources”.

Since the election of Jair Bolsonaro, these actions have been exacerbated in a large scale, where the Evangelical faith is retaining most of the power within a maximum of 20% of approval of majority that unfortunately are classified as ‘the illiterate population’.

Furthermore, Bolsonaro increased the number of eggs inside the economical basket, declaring soy as the main country’s income with more than 70% of approval from the agribusiness industry. Now you wonder why so many fires in the Amazon region. Land possession is the progression of a country drowning itself into tears of the suffered ones.

Click on this link to read more about “The Unforeseen Problems of Soy”.

I know, I know, this is a bit of a novel, but I had to let it all out. My frustrations have done ‘bad’ things to my mind and the only way nowadays to feel ‘good’ about yourself is to maybe do some ‘good’ in spreading the truth through articles, books or some sort of art about the horrendous theatre that is Brazil at the moment.

My voice will not reach most ears, but I hope that it will motivate you, the reader, to be more connected to reliable sources and consider a profound education through information. I meant INFORMATION, not disinformation neither misinformation, to eventually reach a better consensus for the future ahead.

Yes, we are living back in the dark ages. Yes, we are living in a pre-modern fascism regime. And yes, it shocks me to the point of tears.

Before I go, I will leave you with a quote written by Nate White about Trump that also fits perfectly for Bolsonaro as well:

“For instance, he has no class, no charm, no coolness, no credibility, no compassion, no wit, no warmth, no wisdom, no subtlety, no sensitivity, no self-awareness, no humility, no honour and no grace”.

Why would you vote for him still if you consider yourself a decent human being then?

7 minute read
Published on December 1, 2020
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The Undervalue of ‘Groundies’ might be a Sign of Arrogance

Some climbers tend to judge groundworkers as lazy and sloppy, undervaluing their skills. Just because climbers are at the “top of the world” over some risk of falling from heights and responsible for falling objects, it does not mean you must act with rudeness and repressively towards ground workers.

We all hope, as part of your arboriculture training, that is becoming a groundworker you did not take for granted. Back in the days, at least 10 years ago, you must have some years of experience on the ground before shooting up a tree, understanding the dynamics of rope management, risk evaluation and aerial rescue skills.

Today it seems like the opposite. Tree workers that become climbers are completely absent from grounding skills, placing this role as inferior and treating those like shit. I have seen that happening a few times on-site when I was a ‘groundie’ and twice as a duo climber years after.

I experienced a disgusting attitude coming from climbers that made me embarrassed, proving for once that motivation towards that groundworker, which who knows would like to become a climber one day, seems to fade it away. I do not blame him/her though. Who does want to be judged as inferior not thinking that climbers would not be anything if it were not for ‘groundies’?

I should say that ground working is the most important job on site of all. The person responsible to assess constant changeable hazards; the person that keeps an eye on the climber, watching his/her moves, interpreting his/her actions and acting accordingly; the person who is the first man/woman to interact with customers in case of need; the person who has to organise the ropes surrounding him/her to avoid hazards coming from up and down; the person who rigs, drags, clean and chip without a break, and still have to comply of watching climbers packing their gear before help cleaning up; the person who when things go pear shape, he/she is the frontman/woman to make decisions and sort it out problems sometimes outside of their lore.

This is the ground person we, as climbers and company owners, always wanted to be part of the team. The passion that it can be created from people dedicated as they are you cannot buy it anywhere. But I know what you are thinking. It is hard to find ground workers like that. And I agree, at certain level though.

I consider myself a good ‘groundie’. I have proud of working on the ground, trying to make the climber’s life a bit easier. I recognised the burden, depending on the tree, in being up there, getting snugged by twigs and moving into uncomfortable positions. Do you know why I sympathise and try to do my best on the ground? Because I climb and understand the liability.

Maybe the answer to this issue of unsustainable grounding skills and dispute within climbers and ‘groundies’ is just simply to develop both skills equally. To treat both jobs equally.

Sometimes ‘groundies’ would never want to climb in their lives. Fair enough. This is the moment that climbers that grounded before should teach them how to be a ‘groundie’ for a climber. Simple as that.

No time for training? Bullshit. It can be done on-site, during work, pulling ropes, smiling and having pride for what you do. Contract climbers are the classic ones that ignore these issues and act like is the ground person fault that he/she did not have any training so we must leave as it is. For that, you may suffer consequences of poor performance coming from both ends.

It is about time to put yourself in the next one’s place and give them a chance to improve and learn and develop a career that, nonetheless, may improve their mental health, physical capability and motivational issues. Isn’t it just brilliant having an awesome team play?

I try to put it this way: if I would like to have good workers around me and I think I am a good worker; I will train them accordingly.

I will show them the confidence to try things. I will tell them the safe way of doing things and I will try my best to be safe around them. We learn by observing, and inspiring as climbers can be it is about time to use that as part of this education process. There is no need to wait for a certification that most of the time is developed in class anyway.

A lot of us, especially those with experience, should pass it on with happiness and be ready for the unexpected. I guarantee your day’s work will be much better valued after that.

2 minute read
Published on December 5, 2020
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